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2015/16 summer crop situation
Total production of summer crops (paddy, maize, millet and buckwheat) was estimated at 6.8 million mt, a decrease of 5.63 percent compared to 2014/15 and a decrease of 5.3 percent compared to the preceding five-year average. At 6.8 million mt, the production of paddy, maize, millet and buckwheat was estimated at 4.3 million mt, 2.23 million mt, 302,398 mt and 11,641 mt respectively.
The production of paddy decreased by 9.95 percent compared to the five-year average and decreased by 10.22 percent compared to 2014/15. Despite the decrease, paddy contributed to 63 percent of the total summer crop output in 2015/16. The central region produced an estimated 1.1 million mt of paddy, which was 26.9 percent of the national aggregate and the largest of the five development regions. The top five paddy producing districts in 2015/16 were Jhapa, Morang, Rupandehi, Kailali and Bardiya.
The Ministry of Agricultural Development (MoAD) estimates total production of winter crops (wheat and barley) at 2.0 million mt, an increase of 10.86 percent compared to the preceding five-year average (the normal level)1 and 4.95 percent compared to the 2013/14 season. As in the 2013/14 season, the central region recorded the largest share of wheat production (32.6 percent of the total), with 644,063 mt of wheat produced. Dhanusha, Rupandehi, Kapilvastu, Bara and Kailali were the top five wheat-producing districts in 2014/15. Above-normal rainfall was reported during the growing season and is believed to have provided the optimum moisture requirement for the winter wheat crop, but the prolonged withdrawal towards the harvest period adversely affected the wheat and lentil harvest in some districts. MoAD estimates the overall cereal production (summer and winter) for 2014/15 at 9.26 million mt, a decrease of 3.1 percent compared to last year (2013/14).
2014/15 summer crop situation
Production of summer crops (paddy, maize, millet and buckwheat) was estimated at 7.2 million mt, an increase of 3.45 percent compared to the preceding five-year average and a decrease of 5.12 percent compared to 2013/14. At 7.2 million mt, production of paddy, maize, millet and buckwheat was estimated at 4.7 million mt, 2.1 million mt, 308,000 mt and 10,870 mt respectively. With 1.97 million mt of production, the eastern region has the largest share of summer crop production (27.24 percent) followed by the central region (27 percent).
2013/14 winter crop situation
Production of winter crops (wheat and barley) was estimated at 1.9 million mt, an increase of 12.46 percent compared to the ‘normal level’1 and a decrease of 0.06 percent compared to 2012/13.
The 2013 summer crop (paddy, maize, millet, and buckwheat) output was estimated at 7.67 million metric tons (mt), an increase of 12.10 percent compared to last year and 11.90 percent compared to the five-year average or ‘normal’ level1.
Out of the total summer crop production of 7.67 million mt, the production of paddy, maize, millet, and buckwheat was estimated at 5.04 million mt, 2.3 million mt, 0.30 million mt, and 0.010 million mt respectively. Compared to the normal level, the largest production gain was observed in maize (13.80 percent) followed by paddy (11.74 percent), buckwheat (7.22 percent), and millet (0.33 percent).
The production of wheat and barley is estimated at 1.9 million mt, and 37 thousand mt respectively. This is an increase in production of 2 percent and 6 percent respectively compared to 2011/12 winter season.The Central Development Region is the largest wheat producing region with an output of 631 thousand mt, up by 5 percent compared to 2011/12.
Increase in winter crop production is attributed to the timely and adequate precipitation (rainfall/snowfall), and increased use of agricultural inputs.
Crop situation update is prepared by a joint mission of the Ministry of Agriculture Development (MoAD), the World Food Programme (WFP) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The update is issued twice a year (for summer as well as winter crops) on a regular basis covering the whole country.
The preliminary estimation of the 2011 summer crop production shows an increase of 10.8% in total crop output compared to last year: 5,072 thousand MT of paddy, 2,179 thousand MT of maize and 315 thousand MT of millet, resulting in an increase of 13.7 percent, 5.4 percent and 4.1 percent respectively.
This amendment has been prepared to reflect the preliminary results of the 2011 National Population Census (NPC), released by the Central Bureau of Statistics in September 2011. According to the preliminary results, the population of Nepal has reached 26,620,809 with a population growth rate of 1.4 percent per annum.
Wheat production in 2010/11 has increased by 12.2% to 1.75 million MT compared to 1.56 million MT last year and that of barley has increased by 9.6% to 30.2 thousand MT compared to 27.6 thousand MT last year. The production of buckwheat which is also included in cereal food balance computation from this year was 8.8 thousand MT in 2010/11.
In 2010/11, the production of cereal crops has increased by 10.9% to 8.62 million MT compared to 7.76 million MT last year. The overall edible cereal crop production shows a total of 110 thousand MT (2%) surplus this year in contrast to 330 thousand MT (- 6%) deficit last year.
The 2010/11 production for major summer crops (paddy, maize and millet) is estimated at 4.46 million MT, 2.07 million MT and 0.30 million MT respectively, representing an increase of 10.9 percent, 11.5 percent and 1.0 percent over the previous year, respectively.
The winter crop is currently in growing stage and its outlook so far remains good, with production likely to be higher than last year, due to extended monsoon rains in 2010, which kept the soil moisture favourable for the germination, and to good precipitation during January-February 2011 favourable to growth, especially for wheat.
Late start of the monsoon season and irregular distribution of rain caused a reduction in the
2009/2010 summer crop production across the country. Paddy production was down to
4.02 million MT and maize was 1.86 million MT. A reduction of 11 percent and 4 percent
respectively compared to last year’s yield (2008/2009).
A late start to the monsoon and erratic distribution of rain caused a reduction in the 2009/2010 summer crop production across the country. Paddy production was reduced to 4.02 million MT and maize was reduced to 1.86 million MT; this represents a reduction of 11 percent and 4 percent respectively compared to last year.
The 2008/09 winter drought in Nepal was one of the worst on record; according to the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, rain monitoring stations across the country received less than 50 percent of average precipitation during the period November 2008 to February 2009.
The winter drought had significant impact on crop production across Nepal. This assessment suggests a national decrease in wheat and barley production (the two major winter crops) of 14.5 and 17.3 percent respectively compared to last year.
At the request of the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives of Nepal (MoAC), a joint FAO/WFP Crop and Food Supply Assessment Mission (CFSAM) was conducted from 20 March to 8 April 2007.
Following the WFP supported National Crop and Food Security Assessment conducted by the Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives (MoAC) in November 2006, a joint FAO/WFP Crop and Food Supply Assessment (CSFAM) is currently ongoing (from 19 March – 6 April) to assess the condition of the winter crop and develop recommendations on an appropriate national response to localized crop failures and drought.
For the third consecutive year, drought conditions have severely affected agricultural crop production in Nepal. Following signs of early paddy crop failure and reports about farmer’s inability to start planting, especially in the Eastern Terai, the Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives (MoAC) initiated a preliminary assessment of the paddy crop losses in August 2006, which estimated a decline in national paddy production of 850,000 Mt.
As reported in the previous Crop Situation Updates, the drought has had a profound impact on the production levels of the main summer crops. To verify some of the earlier findings with regard to crop losses (especially paddy) and the consequent food security impacts, the Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives (MoAC) requested WFP and FAO for a joint crop assessment which started on 29 October.
The period from August to September marks the growing and early harvesting period for paddy and maize. This crop situation update provides a brief overview on the current crop situation and outlook for these main crops, particularly in the 32 districts covered by surveillance activities of the food security monitoring and analysis system.
Paddy is the main cereal crop in Nepal, followed by wheat, maize, millet, and barley. 46% of the total of 3.35 million hectares of cultivated land, i.e. 1.54 million hectares, is covered by paddy.